A study on the fluid refrigerant charge in a Two-Phase Mechanically Pumped Loop system using R134a and R1234yf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


  • Leandro Pereira
  • Gleberson Humia
  • Ali Khosravi

  • Rémi Revellin
  • Jocelyn Bonjour
  • Luiz Machado
  • Juan Jose Garcia Pabon

Research units

  • Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
  • Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1
  • Federal University of Itajubá


Heat management by means of two-phase mechanically pumped loop (TMPL) possesses promising advantages such as long-distance heat transport, high heat density and good temperature control. Knowledge of the fluid charge has great importance for TMPL system efficiency. The present work is a theoretical/experimental study on the refrigerant charge in TMPL system using R134a and R1234yf refrigerants. The mass of refrigerant in the TMPL system was measured for several cooling capacities. The effects of vapor quality in the evaporator (varying from 0.1 to 1), mass flux (300kg.s-1m-2 and 400kg.s-1m-2), and saturation temperature (25°C and 30°C) on refrigerant charge in the TMPL were experimentally investigated. About 70 experimental points were analyzed and compared with a theoretical model employing eight different prediction tools for the determination of the void fraction. The best results were obtained by Zivi and Hughmark correlations with mean absolute errors of 12% and 13%, respectively.


Original languageEnglish
Article number113727
JournalApplied Thermal Engineering
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 9 May 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • TMPL, R1234yf, R134a, void fraction, refrigerant charge

ID: 33509748