A Simple and Efficient Quasi-3D Magnetic Equivalent Circuit for Surface Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

Ahmed Hemeida, Antti Lehikoinen, Paavo Rasilo, Hendrik Vansompel, Anouar Belahcen, Antero Arkkio, Peter Sergeant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
31 Downloads (Pure)


This paper presents a simple and efficient magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC) model for surface axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machines. The MEC model is used to solve all the electromagnetic properties of the machine including the no load, full load voltages, cogging torque, torque ripple and stator iron core losses. Moreover, this approach can be extended for all surface permanent magnet synchronous machines. The main novelty of this approach is the development of a static system, which accounts for the rotation. The model takes into account the rotor rotation via time dependent permanent magnet magnetization sources. The static system matrix facilitates a very fast solving. In addition, to take into account the 3D effect, a multi-slicing of the machine in the radial direction is done. This boosts the simulation time to only 60 seconds for 6 slices and 50 time steps including the non-linear behaviour of the stator elements with a great accuracy. Additionally, the number of elements in the MEC can be adjusted to reduce the computational time. This model is verified by means of 3D and 2D multi slice finite element (FE) models. In addition, experimental validations are also provided at the end.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8318-8333
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Issue number11
Early online date1 Jan 2018
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Analytical modeling
  • Axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machines (AFPMSM)
  • Cogging torque
  • Magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC)
  • Surface permanent magnet synchronous machines (SPMSM)
  • Torque ripple

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'A Simple and Efficient Quasi-3D Magnetic Equivalent Circuit for Surface Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Projects

    ALEM: Additional Losses in Electrical Machines

    Lehikoinen, A., Belahcen, A., Upadhaya, B., Osemwinyen, O., Sundaria, R., Aydin, U., Balasubramanian, A., Arkkio, A., Rasilo, P., Razzaq, M., Nair, D., Shah, S., Hemeida, A. & Rouhi, H.


    Project: EU: ERC grants

    Cite this