A novel and sustainable composite of L@PSAC for superior removal of pharmaceuticals from different water matrices : Production, characterization, and application

Osamah J. Al-sareji*, Shatha Y. Al-Samarrai, Ruqayah Ali Grmasha, Mónika Meiczinger, Raed A. Al-Juboori, Miklós Jakab, Viola Somogyi, Norbert Miskolczi, Khalid S. Hashim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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Abstract

This study endeavors to develop cost-effective environmentally friendly technology for removing harmful residual pharmaceuticals from water and wastewater by utilizing the effective adsorption of pistachio shell (PS) biochar and the degradation potency of laccase immobilized on the biochar (L@PSAC). The carbonatization and activation of the shells were optimized regarding temperature, time, and NH4NO3/PS ratio. This step yielded an optimum PS biochar (PSAC) with the highest porosity and surface area treated at 700 °C for 3 h using an NH4NO3/PS ratio of 3% wt. The immobilization of laccase onto PSAC (L@PSAC) was at its best level at pH 5, 60 U/g, and 30 °C. The optimum L@PSAC maintained a high level of enzyme activity over two months. Almost a complete removal (>99%) of diclofenac, carbamazepine, and ciprofloxacin in Milli-Q (MQ) water and wastewater was achieved. Adsorption was responsible for >80% of the removal and the rest was facilitated by laccase degradation. L@PSAC maintained effective removal of pharmaceuticals of ≥60% for up to six treatment cycles underscoring the promising application of this material for wastewater treatment. These results indicate that activated carbon derived from the pistachio shell could potentially be utilized as a carrier and adsorbent to efficiently remove pharmaceutical compounds. This enzymatic physical elimination approach has the potential to be used on a large-scale.

Original languageEnglish
Article number118565
Number of pages12
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume251
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • Adsorption
  • Laccase
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Pistachio shell
  • Recyclability
  • Wastewater

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