A new advanced CFD model for flash smelting and converting processes

Tapio Ahokainen*, Ari Jokilaakso, Pekka Taskinen, Markku Kytö

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Commercial modeling software and increasingly efficient computers enable today computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to be used as a tool for a more comprehensive understanding of the flash smelting and flash converting processes. CFD modeling can be used for design purposes in many technological areas, but some relevant physical and chemical phenomena are still missing in the commercial CFD solver packages. Therefore, Outokumpu has developed several subroutines for solvers to describe analytically the phenomena in the flash smelting environment. CFD sub-models of the copper concentrate and matte combustion, the particle-particle-wall interactions and for more accurate radiation properties of the gas-particle suspension are needed to ensure reliability of numerical simulations on the flash smelting and converting vessels. Several basic combustion phenomena can be modeled with a number of commercial solver packages, but own models for combustion must be included in the case of sulfides as the feed. Mathematical models for copper concentrate and solid matte combustion have been developed during the last decade. They calculate compositions of the particles and temperature, based on extensive experimental research work in laboratory scale furnaces with validated kinetic parameters and temperature measurements of reacting particles. Inside and near the concentrate burner, the standard particle tracking methods do not include the particle-particle interactions and the particle-wall interaction is too much simplified to describe properly the particle collisions with the distribution cone. Therefore, additional models for the particle-particle as well as particle-wall interactions have been written and implemented. For thermal radiation, models for the emissivity of a gas mixture and for calculating the particle absorption and scattering coefficients have been developed and tested. In addition, the advanced radiation model can be used i.e. in the enhanced simulation of off-gas cooling in the heat recovery boiler area of the flash smelter.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSohn International Symposium: Advanced Processing of Metals and Materials - Proceedings of the International Symposium
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2006
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventTMS Fall Extraction and Processing Meeting: Sohn International Symposium - San Diego, United States
Duration: 27 Aug 200631 Aug 2006


ConferenceTMS Fall Extraction and Processing Meeting
CountryUnited States
CitySan Diego


  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Copper
  • Heat transfer
  • Particle-particle interaction
  • Radiative properties
  • Single particle combustion
  • Sulfide smelting
  • Suspension


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