A multi-scale computational approach based on TMS experiments for the assessment of electro-stimulation thresholds of the brain at intermediate frequencies

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A multi-scale computational approach based on TMS experiments for the assessment of electro-stimulation thresholds of the brain at intermediate frequencies. / Soldati, Marco; Mikkonen, Marko; Laakso, Ilkka; Murakami, Takenobu; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Hirata, Akimasa.

In: Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 63, No. 22, 225006, 09.11.2018.

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@article{85292849ba5c4610a4f42a2d4ca8e3ed,
title = "A multi-scale computational approach based on TMS experiments for the assessment of electro-stimulation thresholds of the brain at intermediate frequencies",
abstract = "In recent years, human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) at intermediate frequencies (300 Hz-10 MHz) has risen, mainly due to the growth of technologies using these fields. The current safety guidelines/standards defined by international bodies (e.g. ICNIRP and IEEE) established basic restrictions for limiting EMF exposure. These limits at intermediate frequencies are derived from threshold values of the internal electric field that may produce transient effects, such as the stimulation of the nervous system. However, there are some discrepancies between the basic restrictions of those guidelines/standards. The aim of this study is to investigate the excitation thresholds of the nervous system exposed to intermediate-frequency electromagnetic fields, with the purpose of extrapolating the threshold-frequency curves which are compared with existing basic restrictions prescribed by the international guidelines/standards. Our investigation was based on transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiments, physiological measurements, and individualized MRI-based computer simulations for the determination of brain stimulation thresholds. The combined approach with established biological axon models enabled the extrapolation of the measured thresholds for sinusoidally varying electric fields. The findings reveal that the exposure limits are significantly conservative for the brain, especially at frequencies in the range of 300 Hz-5 kHz.",
keywords = "electrostimulation, fnite element method, intermediate-frequency electric feld, international safety standards/guidelines, Transcranial magnetic stimulation",
author = "Marco Soldati and Marko Mikkonen and Ilkka Laakso and Takenobu Murakami and Yoshikazu Ugawa and Akimasa Hirata",
year = "2018",
month = "11",
day = "9",
doi = "10.1088/1361-6560/aae932",
language = "English",
volume = "63",
journal = "Physics in Medicine and Biology",
issn = "0031-9155",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "22",

}

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TY - JOUR

T1 - A multi-scale computational approach based on TMS experiments for the assessment of electro-stimulation thresholds of the brain at intermediate frequencies

AU - Soldati, Marco

AU - Mikkonen, Marko

AU - Laakso, Ilkka

AU - Murakami, Takenobu

AU - Ugawa, Yoshikazu

AU - Hirata, Akimasa

PY - 2018/11/9

Y1 - 2018/11/9

N2 - In recent years, human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) at intermediate frequencies (300 Hz-10 MHz) has risen, mainly due to the growth of technologies using these fields. The current safety guidelines/standards defined by international bodies (e.g. ICNIRP and IEEE) established basic restrictions for limiting EMF exposure. These limits at intermediate frequencies are derived from threshold values of the internal electric field that may produce transient effects, such as the stimulation of the nervous system. However, there are some discrepancies between the basic restrictions of those guidelines/standards. The aim of this study is to investigate the excitation thresholds of the nervous system exposed to intermediate-frequency electromagnetic fields, with the purpose of extrapolating the threshold-frequency curves which are compared with existing basic restrictions prescribed by the international guidelines/standards. Our investigation was based on transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiments, physiological measurements, and individualized MRI-based computer simulations for the determination of brain stimulation thresholds. The combined approach with established biological axon models enabled the extrapolation of the measured thresholds for sinusoidally varying electric fields. The findings reveal that the exposure limits are significantly conservative for the brain, especially at frequencies in the range of 300 Hz-5 kHz.

AB - In recent years, human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) at intermediate frequencies (300 Hz-10 MHz) has risen, mainly due to the growth of technologies using these fields. The current safety guidelines/standards defined by international bodies (e.g. ICNIRP and IEEE) established basic restrictions for limiting EMF exposure. These limits at intermediate frequencies are derived from threshold values of the internal electric field that may produce transient effects, such as the stimulation of the nervous system. However, there are some discrepancies between the basic restrictions of those guidelines/standards. The aim of this study is to investigate the excitation thresholds of the nervous system exposed to intermediate-frequency electromagnetic fields, with the purpose of extrapolating the threshold-frequency curves which are compared with existing basic restrictions prescribed by the international guidelines/standards. Our investigation was based on transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiments, physiological measurements, and individualized MRI-based computer simulations for the determination of brain stimulation thresholds. The combined approach with established biological axon models enabled the extrapolation of the measured thresholds for sinusoidally varying electric fields. The findings reveal that the exposure limits are significantly conservative for the brain, especially at frequencies in the range of 300 Hz-5 kHz.

KW - electrostimulation

KW - fnite element method

KW - intermediate-frequency electric feld

KW - international safety standards/guidelines

KW - Transcranial magnetic stimulation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85056375625&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/1361-6560/aae932

DO - 10.1088/1361-6560/aae932

M3 - Article

VL - 63

JO - Physics in Medicine and Biology

JF - Physics in Medicine and Biology

SN - 0031-9155

IS - 22

M1 - 225006

ER -

ID: 30347950