A Mathematical Model for the Reduction Stage of the CAS-OB Process

Petri Sulasalmi*, Ville Valtteri Visuri, Aki Kärnä, Mika Järvinen, Seppo Ollila, Timo Fabritius

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes a novel method for modeling the reduction stage of the CAS-OB process (composition adjustment by sealed argon bubbling–oxygen blowing). Our previous study proposed a model for the heating stage of the CAS-OB process; the purpose of the present study is to extend this work toward a more comprehensive model for the process in question. The CAS-OB process is designed for homogenization and control of the composition and temperature of steel. During the reduction stage, the steel phase is stirred intensely by employing the gas nozzles at the bottom of the ladle, which blow argon gas. It is assumed that the reduction rate of the top slag is dictated by the formation of slag droplets at the steel-slag interface. Slag droplets, which are generated due to turning of the steel flow in the spout, contribute mainly by increasing the interfacial area between the steel and slag phases. This phenomenon has been taken into account based on our previous study, in which the droplet size distribution and generation rate at different steel flow velocities. The reactions considered between the slag and steel phases are assumed to be mass transfer controlled and reversible. We validated the results from the model against the measurements from the real CAS-OB process. The results indicate that the model accurately predicts the end compositions of slag and steel. Moreover, it was discovered that the cooling rate of steel during the gas stirring given by the model is consistent with the results reported in the literature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3544–3556
Number of pages13
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number6
Early online date12 Aug 2016
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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