A Mathematical Model for Reactions During Top-Blowing in the AOD Process: Derivation of the Model

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


  • Ville-Valtteri Visuri
  • Mika Järvinen
  • Aki Kärnä
  • Petri Sulasalmi
  • Eetu-Pekka Heikkinen
  • Pentti Kupari
  • Timo Fabritius

Research units

  • University of Oulu
  • Outokumpu Stainless Oy


In an earlier work, a fundamental mathematical model was proposed for side-blowing operation in the argon–oxygen decarburization (AOD) process. The purpose of this work is to present a new model, which focuses on the reactions during top-blowing in the AOD process. The model considers chemical reaction rate phenomena between the gas jet and the metal bath as well as between the gas jet and metal droplets. The rate expressions were formulated according to a law of mass action-based method, which accounts for the mass-transfer resistances in the liquid metal, gas, and slag phases. The generation rate of the metal droplets was related to the blowing number theory. This paper presents the description of the model, while validation and preliminary results are presented in the second part of this work.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1850-1867
Number of pages18
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

ID: 14302226