A Fully Integrated Programmable 6.0-8.5-GHz UWB IR Transmitter Front-End for Energy-Harvesting Devices

Tuomas Haapala, Tuomas Rantataro, Kari Halonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Ultra-wideband impulse radio transceivers are becoming a key building block for establishing ultralow power wireless sensor networks. However, impulse radio transmitters commonly suffer from a low spectral quality and a coarse frequency tuning resolution, which limits their global applicability. In this article, we present a fully integrated ultralow power impulse radio transmitter front-end (TFE) whose pulse shaping capabilities and integrated output matching network make it globally applicable up to a 4-MHz pulse repetition rate. We demonstrate a digital carrier frequency-tuning method that achieves a 28-MHz resolution over the frequency band of 6.0-8.5 GHz. In addition, we show that the temperature dependence of the TFE's carrier frequency can be compensated digitally over the industrial temperature range from -40°C to 85 °C. The proposed TFE supports energy-harvesting applications particularly well due to its low leakage power level of 380 nW and a high tolerance to power supply transients during pulse generation. It is demonstrated to operate robustly with low-drive regulators powered by low-quality sources. The TFE is fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS process. It generates 1.8-pJ pulses at a 7.5-GHz carrier frequency while consuming 63 pJ per pulse, corresponding to 2.3% efficiency.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9082107
Pages (from-to)1922-1934
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Issue number7
Early online date2020
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • energy harvesting
  • impulse radio
  • transmitter front-end
  • ultralow power
  • ultra-wideband (UWB)

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