3D Point Cloud Data in Conveying Information for Local Green Factor Assessment

Kaisa Jaalama*, Heikki Kauhanen, Aino Keitaanniemi, Toni Rantanen, Juho-Pekka Virtanen, Arttu Julin, Matti Tapio Vaaja, Matias Ingman, Marika Ahlavuo, Hannu Hyyppä

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
114 Downloads (Pure)


The importance of ensuring the adequacy of urban ecosystem services and green infrastructure has been widely highlighted in multidisciplinary research. Meanwhile, the consolidation of cities has been a dominant trend in urban development and has led to the development and implementation of the green factor tool in cities such as Berlin, Melbourne, and Helsinki. In this study, elements of the green factor tool were monitored with laser-scanned and photogrammetrically derived point cloud datasets encompassing a yard in Espoo, Finland. The results show that with the support of 3D point clouds, it is possible to support the monitoring of the local green infrastructure, including elements of smaller size in green areas and yards. However, point clouds generated by distinct means have differing abilities in conveying information on green elements, and canopy covers, for example, might hinder these abilities. Additionally, some green factor elements are more promising for 3D measurement-based monitoring than others, such as those with clear geometrical form. The results encourage the involvement of 3D measuring technologies for monitoring local urban green infrastructure (UGI), also of small scale.
Original languageEnglish
Article number762
Number of pages24
JournalISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 11 Nov 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • point cloud
  • green factor
  • urban green infrastructure
  • laser scanning
  • photogrammetry


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