Cooling matter to very low temperatures reveals to us the quantum realm otherwise masked by thermal averaging. In helium systems this is manifested by the transition to the superfluid states, profoundly different for the two isotopes 3He and 4He obeying either Fermi- or Bose-statistics. 3He as system of fermions, in particular, condenses to astoundingly intricate states with multidimensional order parameter. It is an apparently endless source of new findings, yielding fruitful analogies to other branches of science from particle physics to cosmology. Lot of attention in contemporary physics is devoted to studies of systems with low dimensionality, which is the root of origin for phenomena such as quantum Hall effect, topological insulators and more. Helium at low temperatures provide several candidate platforms for manifesting the contemplated exotic quantum states, such as Majorana fermions and particles with anyon statistics, which materialize only at reduced dimensionality.
|Effective start/end date||01/04/2021 → 31/12/2022|
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