Efficient and cheap fuel cells (FCs) and water electrolyzers (WEs) form the cornerstone of a functional hydrogen economy, which is perhaps the most promising technology for replacing traditional fossil fuels with a clean and sustainable alternative. The electrocatalysts used in FCs and WEs determine the performance and cost, which makes the development of efficient and low-cost electrocatalysts essential. In this project, novel advanced electrocatalysts are designed to improve the performance and reduce the cost of FCs and WEs. Moreover, a key purpose of this research is to replace platinum-based catalysts, which rely on rare and expensive materials, with earth-abundant and cheap alternatives such as transition metals (Fe, Ni, Co, and Cu), carbon, and nitrogen, to address the crisis of Pt supplies. In addition, these materials also have other potential applications such as in batteries, supercapacitors, magnetic devices, and catalytic reactions.