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  • Rakentajanaukio 2 C

1984 …2023

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Personal profile

Artistic and research interests

I have built and designed multichannel MEG instruments and invented for MEG use the minimum-norm estimate (together with Matti Hämäläinen), the signal-space projection, formulas for the forward problem, the channel-capacity measure for comparing sensor arrays, and the triangle phantom. I have developed, together with many excellent students, several transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques such as navigated TMS (nTMS), the combined use of TMS and EEG, and multi-locus TMS (mTMS). I am the founder and former CEO of Nexstim Plc, the company that brought nTMS and TMS–EEG to the market. Currently, I lead the development of mTMS and hybrid MEG–MRI systems and apply these technologies for neuroscience and clinical use. Much of my effort is devoted to the development of mathematical methods for improved brain-signal analysis and for data interpretation, often involving work on the bioelectromagnetic inverse problem.

Expertise related to UN Sustainable Development Goals

In 2015, UN member states agreed to 17 global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all. This person’s work contributes towards the following SDG(s):

  • SDG 3 - Good Health and Well-being

Education/Academic qualification

Doctoral degree, Engineering and Technology, Helsinki University of Technology

Award Date: 27 Aug 1985

Master's degree, Engineering and Technology, Helsinki University of Technology

Award Date: 16 Jun 1981


  • Biodesign
  • Aalto Ventures Program
  • Human brain imaging
  • Applied Physics
  • Neurophysics
  • Biophysics
  • Electromagnetism
  • Bioelectromagnetism
  • Neuroscience
  • Biomedical engineering
  • Medical Technology
  • Neurotechnology
  • Brain imaging
  • Electrical impedance tomography
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • Magnetoencephalography
  • Electroencephalography
  • Brain Research
  • Neurostimulation
  • Ultra-low-field MRI
  • Brain stimulation
  • Navigated brain stimulation
  • Navigated TMS
  • Transcranial direct current stimulation
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • Brain connectivity
  • Brain modeling
  • Inverse problems
  • Signal analysis
  • SQUID magnetometers
  • Philosophy of mind
  • EEG
  • NIRS
  • TMS
  • NTMS
  • NBS
  • MMN
  • MRI
  • MEG
  • FMRI
  • EIT
  • M.Sc. programme Brain and Mind
  • BioMag Laboratory
  • BECS
  • Aalto Brain Centre (ABC)
  • TDCS
  • TACS


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