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In the µKI group we study systems thermally active still at microkelvin range of temperatures. This applies to most nuclear spin ensembles, fermion fluids (pure and dilute He-3), and some conduction electron systems, which fail to develop superconductivity or magnetic ordering at higher temperatures. Different subsystems of matter may have very different temperatures at the same time, though they may be spatially inseparable. Fascinating examples of this are the assemblies of nuclear spins and conduction electrons in metals. Experiments on condensed matter well below 1 mK can be performed routinely in a carefully designed cryostat combining a powerful dilution refrigerator and an adiabatic nuclear demagnetization stage.

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