Overview on the development of converter steelmaking from Bessemer to modern practices and future prospects - Plenary lecture

Holappa, L. (Speaker)

Activity: Talk or presentation typesConference presentation


Converter steelmaking is the main stage in ore-based production using blast furnace hot metal and steel scrap as charge materials. Over 70 % of steel is produced via basic oxygen converters today. Converter process was developed in the middle of 19th century by blowing air through pig iron melt for decarburization. The subsequent innovation was basic lining and Thomas process. Next problem, switch from air to oxygen was hard and did not succeed in industrial scale until the 1950s when oxygen blowing via top lance was developed. Oxygen bottom blowing was then solved by applying annular nozzles with hydrocarbon cooling. Current technologies combine benefits of top and bottom blowing in hybrid processes. In this overview, the history of converter processes is briefly surveyed. Recent progress and challenges e.g. better utilisation of post combustion for scrap melting and environmental impacts are discussed. Also attempts for continuous converting as well as the future role of converter process are highlighted.
Period6 Dec 2018
Event titleInternational Seminar on Converters
Event typeSeminar
LocationMumbai, India
Degree of RecognitionInternational


  • history of steelmaking
  • converters
  • oxygen steelmaking
  • direct steelmaking